What is the relationship between the intake of milk and milk products and selected health outcomes?
Introduction to the Review
Milk and milk products are significant protein sources in the American diet, and they also are important sources of other nutrients. This topic was considered by the 2005 DGAC, and the Conclusions expressed in the 2010 DGAC Report are informed by the evidence compiled for the 2005 DGAC Report, but are based primarily on the NEL evidence gathered and reviewed since 2004. The Committee considered only studies that directly assessed the relationship between food group intake and health; studies examining dietary patterns that were high in a particular food group were considered as dietary patterns, not under reviews for the individual food groups. The review of milk and milk products considered bone health, cardiovascular outcomes, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and body weight. Cancer was originally included in the search but was later excluded from the NEL review. All the evidence reviews covered children and adults, except for body weight, which included only adults. The relationship between the consumption of milk and milk products and childhood adiposity is discussed in Energy Balance and Weight Management.