Limited evidence suggests that dietary patterns emphasizing seafood, vegetables, fruits, nuts and legumes are associated with lower risk of depression in men and non-perinatal women. However, the body of evidence is primarily composed of observational studies and employs a range of methodology in study design, definition and measurement of dietary patterns and ascertainment of depression and depressive signs and symptoms. Studies on dietary patterns in other populations such as women in the postpartum period, children and adolescents, as well as those in various ethnic and cultural groups, are too limited to draw conclusions.
Grade: Limited: Adults Not assignable: Postpartum women, children and adolescents
Limited evidence suggests that a dietary pattern containing an array of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes and seafood consumed during adulthood is associated with lower risk of age-related cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Although the number of studies available on dietary patterns and neurodegenerative disease risk is expanding, this body of evidence, which is made up of high-quality observational studies, has appeared only in recent years and is rapidly developing. It employs a wide range of methodology in study design, definition and measurement ascertainment of cognitive outcomes and dietary pattern assessment.