Moderate evidence indicates that dietary patterns rich in vegetables, fruit and whole grains, and lower in animal products and refined carbohydrate, are associated with reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The data regarding this dietary pattern and premenopausal breast cancer risk point in the same direction, but the evidence is limited due to fewer studies.
Grade: Moderate: Postmenopausal breast cancer risk Limited: Premenopausal breast cancer risk
Moderate evidence indicates an inverse association between dietary patterns that are higher in vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, lean meats and seafood, low-fat dairy and moderate alcohol; and low in red and processed meats, saturated fat, sodas and sweets relative to other dietary patterns and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Conversely, diets that are higher in red and processed meats, French fries and potatoes and sources of sugars (i.e., sodas, sweets and dessert foods) are associated with a greater colon and rectal cancer risk.
No conclusion can be drawn regarding the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of prostate cancer. This is due to limited evidence from a small number of studies with wide variation in study design, dietary assessment methodology and prostate cancer outcome ascertainment.
Limited evidence from a small number of studies suggests a lower risk of lung cancer associated with dietary patterns containing more frequent servings of vegetables, fruits, seafood, grains and cereals, legumes and lean vs. higher fat meats and lower fat or non-fat dairy products. Despite reported modest significant reductions in risk, definitive conclusions cannot be established at this time because of the small number of articles, as well as wide variation in study design, dietary assessment and case ascertainment.