Limited evidence suggests that a dietary pattern higher in vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts and dairy products, and lower in meats and saturated fat, is associated with more favorable bone health outcomes in adults, including decreased risk of fracture and osteoporosis, as well as improved bone mineral density. Although a growing number of studies are examining the relationship between dietary patterns and bone health in adults, the number of high-quality studies is modest and those available employ a wide range of methodologies in study design, dietary assessment techniques and varying bone health outcomes.
Definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between dietary patterns and bone health outcomes (bone mineral density and bone mineral content) in children and adolescents cannot be drawn due to the limited evidence from a small number of studies with wide variation in study design, dietary assessment methodology and bone health outcomes
Grade: Limited: Adults Not assignable: Children and adolescents
Moderate evidence indicates that the intake of milk and milk products is linked to improved bone health in children. Limited evidence suggests a positive relationship between the intake of milk and milk products and bone health in adults, but results are inconsistent due to variability in outcomes considered.