Nutrient Adequacy Subcommittee (2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans)
The Nutrient Adequacy Subcommittee (SC) addressed two major questions related to achieving the recommended intakes of nutrients:
A number of recently published, comprehensive, systematic reviews were available to inform the SC’s review of several of its initial research questions.
Since January, 1998, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has mandated the supplementation of all flour and uncooked cereal grains with folic acid, and the members of the SC have sought to evaluate the benefits and detrimental effects of the policy on the health of Americans. Because Canada has had a similar policy, the SC decided to include articles from Canada.
Meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations is challenging for many Americans. To gain an understanding of the depth and breadth of research in these areas, the SC conducted a series of exploratory literature searches. The exploratory searches helped the SC narrow the scope of its Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) systematic reviews to the following three individual behaviors:
The Energy Balance and Weight Management Subcommittee examined complementary questions relating to the effects of breakfast intake, snacking and eating frequency on energy balance and weight maintenance.
1. Develop and test behavior-based interventions designed to lower dietary intakes of nutrients and dietary components that are over-consumed, focusing on solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS).
Food Groups and Selected Dietary Components Under-consumed
2. Conduct clinical trials in children and adults to critically examine the impact of adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as a total dietary approach to a healthy lifestyle on body weight change, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, cancer and osteoporosis and related clinical endpoints.
3. Quantitatively and qualitatively investigate how the food environment facilitates or hinders achievement of food groups and dietary components recommendations, notably in individuals enrolled in food assistance programs, particularly children participating in school breakfast and lunch programs and across various ethnic and cultural groups.
4. Conduct high-quality, long-term dose-response studies with relevant health outcomes including bone, as well as functional outcomes related to the immune system, autoimmune disorders and chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension (HTN), cancer and diabetes.
5. Investigate the metabolic partitioning, fate and mobilization of key vitamin D metabolites at recommended and greater than recommended levels.
6. Conduct studies on the long-term health impact of fortification on neural tube defects (NTDs), colorectal cancer (CRC), stroke, cognitive function and other health outcomes, such as emerging evidence suggesting that high folic acid intakes in some pregnant women may lead to asthma in their offspring (Whitrow, 2009), to fully understand the impact of this ecological experiment.
Vitamin, Mineral, and Nutrient Supplements
7. Conduct studies on the precision in self-reported intakes of multivitamin/mineral supplements.
8. Develop accurate composition and bioavailability data across the multitude of vitamin, mineral and nutrient supplements. Evaluate outcomes based on nutrient composition and bioavailability within the multivitamin/mineral matrix.
9. Conduct randomized controlled trials that rigorously test health outcomes, including safety and risk assessments, of nutrient supplements in a diverse range of healthy population groups.
Nutrient Adequacy and Eating Behaviors
10. Convene a consensus panel to define breakfast, breakfast consumers and breakfast skipping; snacking; and eating frequency that can be consistently applied to studies.
11. Conduct longitudinal studies on the cumulative nutritional risks of breakfast skipping and health benefits of breakfast consumption. Identify critical components of breakfast and snacks, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains and fluid milk and milk products, and their related health benefits.
NEL Project Managers:
NEL Support Staff:
Dietary Guidelines Management Team: