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Search Plan and Results


What is the relationship between alcohol intake and bone health? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched


Inclusion Criteria

  • January 1, 1995 through June 9, 2009
  • Human subjects
  • English language
  • International
  • Sample size: Minimum of 10 subjects per study arm; preference for larger sizes, if available
  • Dropout rate: Less than 20%; preference for smaller dropout rates 
  • Ages: Adults: Adults of legal drinking age (21 and older)
  • Populations: Healthy, those with elevated chronic disease risk, those diagnosed with the highly prevalent chronic diseases (CHD/CVD, Hypertension, Type 2 DM,  Osteoporosis, Osteopenia and Obesity) and those with breast cancer, colon cancer and/or prostate cancer.


Exclusion Criteria

  • Medical treatment or therapy
  • Diseased subjects (exceptions noted)
  • Hospitalized patients
  • Malnourished and third-world populations or disease incidence not relative to US population, e.g. malaria
  • Animal studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Articles not peer reviewed (websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.)
  • Cross-sectional study design.

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

("Ethanol"[Mesh] OR “Alcohol Drinking”[mesh] OR "Alcoholic Beverages"[Mesh]) AND ("Bone Density"[Mesh] OR "Fractures, Bone"[Mesh] OR "Bone Diseases"[Mesh])

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 132

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 21

Articles identified via handsearch or other means:


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 0

Number of Review Articles Identified: 1

Total Number of Articles Identified: 1

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 20


List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

Berg KM, Kunins HV, Jackson JL, Nahvi S, Chaudhry A, Harris KA Jr, Malik R, Arnsten JH. Association between alcohol consumption and both osteoporotic fracture and bone density. Am J Med. 2008 May; 121 (5): 406-418. Review. PubMed PMID: 18456037; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2692368.


List of Excluded Articles with Reason