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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

Clean: To what extent do US consumers clean their refrigerators? (DGAC 2010)

COOK AND CHILL: To what extent do US consumers use food thermometers to properly assess the internal cooking temperature of meat and poultry while cooking? (DGAC 2010)

Cook and Chill: To what extent do US consumers use refrigerator and freezer thermometers in their homes? (DGAC 2010)

To what extent do specific subpopulations practice unsafe food safety behaviors? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched

3/24/09

Inclusion Criteria

  • January 2003 to March 2009
  • Human subjects
  • English language
  • Sample size: Minimum of 10 subjects per study arm; preference for larger sizes, if available
  • Dropout rate: Less than 20%; preference for smaller dropout rates
  • Ages two years and older; look at research for adults and children, pregnant women and older adults**
  • Populations: Healthy and those at elevated risk of adverse outcome from foodborne illness [Pregnant women and unborn baby (fetus), young children (less than four years old), older adults**, those with weakened immune systems (cancer, leukemia, diabetes, liver or kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, autoimmune disease (e.g., lupus), persons with poor underlying health].

**MESH terms to search on include: Aged [aged (65 through 79 years of age); ages 80 years and over; frail elderly].

 

Exclusion Criteria

  • International studies
  • Medical treatment and therapy
  • Diseased subjects (already diagnosed with disease related to study purpose)
  • Malnourished or third-world populations or disease incidence not relative to US population (e.g., malaria)
  • Animal studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Studies in health care settings
  • Articles not peer reviewed (websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.).

 

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND ("Food Contamination"[MeSH Terms] OR "Food Handling"[MeSH Terms] OR "Cooking and Eating Utensils"[Mesh])

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND ("Food Contamination"[MeSH Terms] OR "Food Handling"[MeSH Terms]) AND food[Mesh])

(food sterilization OR canning) AND (home OR household)

(food storage OR food sanitation OR food preparation OR foodborne diseases* OR illness*) AND (home OR household* OR consumer*) AND ("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] 

(home OR household* OR consumer*) AND ("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND ("Food Parasitology"[Mesh] OR "Food Contamination"[Mesh] OR "Food Poisoning"[Mesh] OR "Cross Infection"[Mesh])

(motivators OR barriers) AND food safety

"Immunocompromised Host"[MeSH Terms] AND (food safety OR ("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND home OR household* OR consumer*))

("food safety"[Title] AND (handling[Title] OR knowledge[Title] OR education[Title]))

("thermometers"[Mesh] OR canning OR freez* OR refrigerat* OR (vacuum packed) OR (cutting board*)) AND ("food handling"[mesh] OR "Food Contamination"[Mesh] OR "infection control"[All Fields] AND ("methods"[Subheading] OR "methods"[All Fields] OR "methods"[MeSH Terms]) OR "food poisoning"[Mesh] OR "disinfection"[MeSH] OR "hygiene"[MeSH])

 

PubMed.

("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND ("Food Contamination"[MeSH Terms] OR "Food Handling"[MeSH Terms] OR "Cooking and Eating Utensils"[Mesh]): 238 total.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND ("Food Contamination"[MeSH Terms] OR "Food Handling"[MeSH Terms]) AND food[Mesh]: 126 results. 

(food sterilization OR canning) AND (home OR household): 101 results. 

(food storage OR food sanitation OR food preparation OR foodborne diseases* OR illness*) AND (home OR household* OR consumer*) AND ("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms]: 450 results.

(home OR household* OR consumer*) AND ("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND ("Food Parasitology"[Mesh] OR "Food Contamination"[Mesh] OR "Food Poisoning"[Mesh] OR "Cross Infection"[Mesh]): 89 results. 

(motivators OR barriers) AND food safety: 130 results.

"Immunocompromised Host"[MeSH Terms] AND (food safety OR ("Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"[MeSH Terms] AND home OR household* OR consumer*)): 26 results.

("food safety"[Title] AND (handling[Title] OR knowledge[Title] OR education[Title])): 53 hits total.

BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, FSTA, AGRICOLA, Science Direct.

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 439

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 81

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 22

Number of Review Articles Identified: 1

Total Number of Articles Identified: 23

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 58

 




List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

QUESTION:  To what extent do specific subpopulations practice unsafe food safety behaviors?

Reviews/Meta-analyses Citations (0)

None.

Primary Research Citations (9)

Almanza BA, Namkung Y, Ismail JA, Nelson DC. Clients' safe food-handling knowledge and risk behavior in a home-delivered meal program. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 May; 107(5): 816-821. PMID: 17467379.

Byrd-Bredbenner C, Abbot JM, Wheatley V, Schaffner D, Bruhn C, Blalock L. Risky eating behaviors of young adults-implications for food safety education. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Mar; 108(3): 549-552. PMID: 18313439.

Byrd-Bredbenner C, Maurer J, Wheatley V, Cottone E, Clancy M. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults. J Food Prot. 2007 Apr; 70(4): 991-996. PMID: 17477272.

Kwon J, Wilson AN, Bednar C, Kennon L. Food safety knowledge and behaviors of women, infant, and children (WIC) program participants in the United States. J Food Prot. 2008 Aug; 71(8): 1, 651-1, 658. PMID: 18724760.

Roseman MG. Food safety perceptions and behaviors of participants in congregate-meal and home-delivered-meal programs. J Environ Health. 2007 Sep; 70(2): 13-21, 44. PMID: 17886577.

Trepka MJ, Newman FL, Dixon Z, Huffman FG. Food safety practices among pregnant women and mothers in the women, infants, and children program, Miami, Florida. J Food Prot. 2007 May; 70(5): 1, 230-1, 237. PMID: 17536684.

QUESTION: COOK AND CHILL: To what extent do US consumers use food thermometers to properly assess the internal cooking temperature of meat and poultry while cooking?

Reviews/Meta-analyses Citations (1)

Redmond EC, Griffith CJ. Consumer food handling in the home: A review of food safety studies. J Food Prot. 2003 Jan; 66(1): 130-161. Review. PMID: 12540194. 

Primary Research Citations (7)

Bergsma NJ, Fischer ARH, Asselt ED van, Zwietering MH, Jong AEI de. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken. British Food Journal. 2007, 109(7): 548-561. (Database: FSTA).

Byrd-Bredbenner C, Maurer J, Wheatley V, Cottone E, Clancy M. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults. J Food Prot. 2007 Apr; 70(4): 991-996. PMID: 17477272.

Dharod JM, Pérez-Escamilla R, Paciello S, Bermúdez-Millán A, Venkitanarayanan K, Damio G. Comparison between self-reported and observed food handling behaviors among Latinas. J Food Prot. 2007 Aug; 70(8): 1, 927-1, 932. PMID: 17803151.

Dharod JM, Pérez-Escamilla R, Bermúdez-Millán A, Segura-Perez S, Damio G. Influence of the Fight BAC! food safety campaign on an urban Latino population in Connecticut. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2004 May-Jun; 36(3): 128-132. PMID: 15202988.

Kwon J, Wilson AN, Bednar C, Kennon L. Food safety knowledge and behaviors of women, infant, and children (WIC) program participants in the United States. J Food Prot. 2008 Aug;71(8):1651-8. PMID: 18724760.

Trepka MJ, Newman FL, Dixon Z, Huffman FG. Food safety practices among pregnant women and mothers in the women, infants, and children program, Miami, Florida. J Food Prot. 2007 May;70(5):1230-7. PMID: 17536684

QUESTION:  COOK AND CHILL: To what extent do US consumers use refrigerator and freezer thermometers in their homes?

Reviews/Meta-analyses Citations (0)

None.

Primary Research Citations (2)

Kosa KM, Cates SC, Karns S, Godwin SL, Chambers D. Consumer home refrigeration practices: Results of a web-based survey. J Food Prot. 2007 Jul; 70(7): 1, 640-1, 649. PMID: 17685337.

Towns RE, Cullen RW, Memken JA, Nnakwe NE. Food safety-related refrigeration and freezer practices and attitudes of consumers in Peoria and surrounding counties. J Food Prot. 2006 Jul; 69(7): 1, 640-1645. PMID: 16865898.

QUESTION:  CLEAN: To what extent do US consumers clean their refrigerators?

Reviews/Meta-analyses Citations (0)

None.

Primary Research Citations (4)

Byrd-Bredbenner C, Maurer J, Wheatley V, Cottone E, Clancy M. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults. J Food Prot. 2007 Apr; 70(4): 991-996. PMID: 17477272.

Godwin SL, Fur-Chi C, Coppings RJ. Correlation of visual perceptions of cleanliness and reported cleaning practices with measures of microbial contamination in home refrigerators. Food Protection Trends. 2006; 26(7): 474-480. (FSTA database).

Kilonzo-Nthenge A, Chen FC, Godwin SL. Occurrence of Listeria and Enterobacteriaceae in domestic refrigerators. J Food Prot. 2008 Mar; 71(3): 608-612. PMID: 18389708.

Kosa KM, Cates SC, Karns S, Godwin SL, Chambers D. Consumer home refrigeration practices: Results of a web-based survey. J Food Prot. 2007 Jul; 70(7): 1, 640-1, 649. PMID: 17685337.


List of Excluded Articles with Reason

 

Article Reason for Exclusion

Angelillo IF, Foresta MR, Scozzafava C, Pavia M. Consumers and foodborne diseases: Knowledge, attitudes and reported behavior in one region of Italy. Int J Food Microbiol. 2001 Feb 28; 64(1-2): 161-166. PMID: 11252498.

Outside date range (Feb. 2001).

Athearn PN, Kendall PA, Hillers VV, Schroeder M, Bergmann V, Chen G, Medeiros LC. Awareness and acceptance of current food safety recommendations during pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. 2004 Sep; 8(3): 149-162. PMID: 15499871.  

Qualitative research study (focus groups).

Badrie N, Gobin A, Dookeran S, Duncan R. Consumer awareness and perception to food safety hazards in Trinidad, West Indies. Food Control. 2006; 17(5): 370-377. (hand search).

International study.

Berg L. Trust in food in the age of mad cow disease: a comparative study of consumers' evaluation of food safety in Belgium, Britain and Norway. Appetite. 2004 Feb; 42(1): 21-32. PMID: 15036780.

Outside date range (Feb. 2004).

Bermúdez-Millán A, Pérez-Escamilla R, Damio G, González A, Segura-Pérez S. Food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Puerto Rican caretakers living in Hartford, Connecticut. J Food Prot. 2004 Mar; 67(3): 512-516. PMID: 15035366.

Outside date range (Mar. 2004).

Bremer V, Bocter N, Rehmet S, Klein G, Breuer T, Ammon A. Consumption, knowledge, and handling of raw meat: a representative cross-sectional survey in Germany, March 2001. J Food Prot. 2005 Apr; 68(4): 785-789. PMID: 15830671.

International study.

Brennan M, McCarthy M, Ritson C. Why do consumers deviate from best microbiological food safety advice? An examination of 'high-risk' consumers on the island of Ireland. Appetite. 2007 Sep; 49(2): 405-418. Epub 2007 Jan 30. PMID: 17825953.

International study.

Byrd-Bredbenner C, Maurer J, Wheatley V, Schaffner D, Bruhn C, Blalock L. Food safety self-reported behaviors and cognitions of young adults: Results of a national study. J Food Prot. 2007 Aug; 70(8): 1, 917-1, 926. PMID: 17803150.

Older than more recent study looking at same sample (Byrd-Bredbenner, 2008).

Chai LC, Lee HY, Ghazali FM, Abu Bakar F, Malakar PK, Nishibuchi M, Nakaguchi Y, Radu S. Simulation of cross-contamination and decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni during handling of contaminated raw vegetables in a domestic kitchen. J Food Prot. 2008 Dec; 71(12): 2, 448-2, 452. PMID: 19244897 [PubMed - in process].

Does not answer the question (simulation not a study of what consumer practices and behaviors).

Di Piazza F, Casuccio A, Falletta M, Di Benedetto MA. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of the use of ready-to-eat vegetables among potential consumers of Palermo (Italy) Ann Ig. 2007 Sep-Oct; 19(5): 473-481. Italian. PMID: 18210777.

Article not in the English language.

Engler-Stringer R, Berenbaum S.Food and nutrition-related learning in collective kitchens in three Canadian cities. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2006 Winter; 67(4): 178-183. PMID: 17150139.

Does not answer the question (Not in-home; collective kitchens, community-based cooking programs).

Fischer AR, Frewer LJ, Nauta MJ. Toward improving food safety in the domestic environment: A multi-item Rasch scale for the measurement of the safety efficacy of domestic food-handling practices. Risk Anal. 2006 Oct; 26(5): 1, 323-1, 338. PMID: 17054534.

Does not answer the question (on development of measurement tool).

Garayoa R, Córdoba M, García-Jalón I, Sanchez-Villegas A, Vitas AI. Relationship between consumer food safety knowledge and reported behavior among students from health sciences in one region of Spain. J Food Prot. 2005 Dec; 68(12): 2, 631-2, 636. PMID: 16355835.

International study.

Gauci C, Gauci AA. What does the food handler in the home know about salmonellosis and food safety? J R Soc Health. 2005 May; 125(3): 136-142. PMID: 15920928.

International study.

Gilbert SE, Whyte R, Bayne G, Paulin SM, Lake RJ, van der Logt P. Survey of domestic food handling practices in New Zealand. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Jul 15; 117(3): 306-311. Epub 2007 May 17. PMID: 17566578.

International study.
Gittelsohn J, Anliker JA, Sharma S, Vastine AE, Caballero B, Ethelbah B. Psychosocial determinants of food purchasing and preparation in American Indian households. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2006 May-Jun; 38(3): 163-168. PMID: 16731451. Does not answer the question (not related to food safety).
Hetzel M, Bonfoh B, Farah Z, Traoré M, Simbé CF, Alfaroukh IO, Schelling E, Tanner M, Zinsstag J. Diarrhoea, vomiting and the role of milk consumption: perceived and identified risk in Bamako (Mali). Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Oct; 9(10): 1, 132-1, 138. PMID: 15482408 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Third world population (Mali).
Hillers VN, Medeiros L, Kendall P, Chen G, DiMascola S. Consumer food-handling behaviors associated with prevention of 13 foodborne illnesses. J Food Prot. 2003 Oct; 66(10): 1, 893-1, 899.PMID: 14572229 Outside date range (Oct. 2003).
Jackson V, Blair IS, McDowell DA, Kennedy J, Bolton DJ. The incidence of significant foodborne pathogens in domestic refrigerators. Food Control. 2007 5; 18(4): 346-351 (hand search). Does not answer the question (focus on pathogens found in refrigerators).
Jevšnik M, Hlebec V, Raspor P. Food safety knowledge and practices among food handlers in Slovenia. Food Control. 2008 12; 19(12): 1, 107-1, 118 (hand search). Does not answer the question (not in-home) and international study.

Jevšnik M, Hlebec V, Raspor P. Consumers’ awareness of food safety from shopping to eating. Food Control. 2008 8; 19(8): 737-745 (hand search). 

International study.

Jevšnik M, Hoyer S, Raspor P. Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia. Food Control. 2008 5; 19(5): 526-534 (hand search).

International study.
Johnson AE, Donkin AJ, Morgan K, Lilley JM, Neale RJ, Page RM, Silburn R. Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998 Nov; 52(11): 745-748. PMID: 10396508. Outside date range (Nov. 1998).
Jolly P, Jiang Y, Ellis W, Awuah R, Nnedu O, Phillips T, Wang JS, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Tang L, Person S, Williams J, Jolly C. Determinants of aflatoxin levels in Ghanaians: sociodemographic factors, knowledge of aflatoxin and food handling and consumption practices. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2006 Jul; 209(4): 345-358. Epub 2006 Apr 27. PMID: 16644281. Third world population (Ghana).
Karabudak E, Bas M, Kiziltan G. Food safety in the home consumption of meat in Turkey. Food Control. 2008 3; 19(3): 320-327 (hand search). International study.
Kendall P, Medeiros LC, Hillers V, Chen G, DiMascola S. Food handling behaviors of special importance for pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and immune-compromised people. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec; 103(12): 1, 646-1, 649. PMID: 14647094. Outside date range (Dec. 2003).
Kennedy J, Jackson V, Blair IS, McDowell DA, Cowan C, Bolton DJ. Food safety knowledge of consumers and the microbiological and temperature status of their refrigerators. J Food Prot. 2005 Jul; 68(7): 1, 421-1, 430. PMID: 16013380. International study. 
Knight PG, Jackson JC, Bain B, Eldemire-Shearer D. Household food safety awareness of selected urban consumers in Jamaica. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Jul; 54(4): 309-320. PMID: 12850892.

Outside date range (July 2003).

Kramer J, Scott WG. Food safety knowledge and practices in ready-to-eat food establishments. Int J Environ Health Res. 2004 Oct; 14(5): 343-350. PMID: 15385213. Does not answer the question (not in-home).
Lagendijk E, Asséré A, Derens E, Carpentier B. Domestic refrigeration practices with emphasis on hygiene: analysis of a survey and consumer recommendations. J Food Prot. 2008 Sep; 71(9): 1, 898-1, 904. PMID: 18810875. International study.
Lenhart J, Kendall P, Medeiros L, Doorn J, Schroeder M, Sofos J. Consumer assessment of safety and date labeling statements on ready-to-eat meat and poultry products designed to minimize risk of listeriosis. J Food Prot. 2008 Jan; 71(1): 70-76. PMID: 18236665. Qualitative research study (focus groups).
Li-Cohen AE, Bruhn CM. Safety of consumer handling of fresh produce from the time of purchase to the plate: a comprehensive consumer survey. J Food Prot. 2002 Aug; 65(8): 1, 287-1, 296. PMID: 12182482. Outside date range (Aug. 2002).
Maciorowski KG, Ricke SC, Birkhold SG. Consumer poultry meat handling and safety education in three Texas cities. Poult Sci. 1999 Jun; 78(6): 833-840. PMID: 10438126. Outside date range (Jun. 1999).
Marklinder IM, Lindblad M, Eriksson LM, Finnson AM, Lindqvist R. Home storage temperatures and consumer handling of refrigerated foods in Sweden. J Food Prot. 2004 Nov; 67(11): 2, 570-2, 577. PMID: 15553644. International study. 
Medeiros LC, Hillers VN, Chen G, Bergmann V, Kendall P, Schroeder M. Design and development of food safety knowledge and attitude scales for consumer food safety education. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Nov; 104(11): 1, 671-1, 677. PMID: 15499353.

Does not answer the question (on development of measurement tool).

Mitakakis TZ, Sinclair MI, Fairley CK, Lightbody PK, Leder K, Hellard ME. Food safety in family homes in Melbourne, Australia. J Food Prot. 2004 Apr; 67(4): 818-822. PMID: 15083738. Outside date range (Apr. 2004).
Ovca A, Jevšnik M. Maintaining a cold chain from purchase to the home and at home: Consumer opinions. Food Control. 2009 2; 20(2): 167-172 (hand search). Does not answer question (focus on consumer opinions not practices and behaviors).
Planzer SB Jr, da Cruz AG, Sant'ana AS, Silva R, Moura MR, de Carvalho LM. Food safety knowledge of cheese consumers. J Food Sci. 2009 Jan; 74(1): M28-M30. PMID: 19200103 [PubMed - in process]. International study.
Porter EJ. Problems with preparing food reported by frail older women living alone at home. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2007 Apr-Jun; 30(2): 159-174. PMID: 17510573. Does not answer question (focuses on quality of life issues rather than food safety concerns).
Redmond EC, Griffith CJ. Consumer perceptions of food safety risk, control and responsibility. Appetite. 2004 Dec; 43(3): 309-313. PMID: 15527934. Does not answer the question (on consumer perceptions not food safety behaviors and practices).
Sanlier N. The knowledge and practice of food safety by young and adult consumers. Food Control. 2009 6; 20(6): 538-542 (hand search). International study.
Santos MJ, Nogueira JR, Patarata L, Mayan O. Knowledge levels of food handlers in Portuguese school canteens and their self-reported behaviour towards food safety. Int J Environ Health Res. 2008 Dec; 18(6): 387-401. PMID: 19031144.

Does not answer the question (not in-home).

Scott E. Food safety and foodborne disease in 21st century homes. Can J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep; 14(5): 277-280. PMID: 18159469 [PubMed - in process]. Outside date range (Sep. 2003).
Sharma M, Eastridge J, Mudd C. Effective household disinfection methods of kitchen sponges. Food Control. 2009 3; 20(3): 310-313 (hand search). Does not answer question (on household disinfection methods; better for other Food Safety Question).

Sheth M, Obrah M. Diarrhea prevention through food safety education. Indian J Pediatr. 2004 Oct; 71(10): 879-882. PMID: 15531827.

Examined outcomes for children below target population age (six to 24 months of age).
Sneed J, Strohbehn C, Gilmore SA. Food safety practices and readiness to implement HACCP programs in assisted-living facilities in Iowa. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Nov; 104(11): 1, 678-1, 683. PMID: 15499354.

Does not answer the question (not in-home).

Subba Rao GM, Sudershan RV, Rao P, Vishnu Vardhana Rao M, Polasa K. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers: findings from focus group studies in South India. Appetite. 2007 Sep; 49(2): 441-449. Epub 2007 Mar 12. PMID: 17448570. Qualitative research study (focus groups).
Sudershan RV, Rao GMS, Rao P, Rao MVV, Polasa K. Food safety related perceptions and practices of mothers: A case study in Hyderabad, India. Food Control. 2008 5; 19(5): 506-513 (hand search). International study.
Takeuchi MT, Edlefsen M, McCurdy SM, Hillers VN. Development and validation of stages-of-change questions to assess consumers' readiness to use a food thermometer when cooking small cuts of meat. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Feb; 106(2): 262-266. PMID: 16442875. Does not answer the question (on development of measurement tool).
Takeuchi MT, Edlefsen M, McCurdy SM, Hillers VN. Educational intervention enhances consumers' readiness to adopt food thermometer use when cooking small cuts of meat: An application of the transtheoretical model. J Food Prot. 2005 Sep; 68(9): 1, 874-1, 883. PMID: 16161687. Does not answer the question (on testing an educational intervention).
Tokuç B, Ekuklu G, Berberoglu U, Bilge E, Dedeler H. Knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices of food service staff regarding food hygiene in Edirne, Turkey. Food Control. 2009 6; 20(6): 565-568 (hand search). Conducted in health care setting, not in home.
Trepka MJ, Murunga V, Cherry S, Huffman FG, Dixon Z. Food safety beliefs and barriers to safe food handling among WIC program clients, Miami, Florida. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2006 Nov-Dec; 38(6): 371-377. PMID: 17142194. Qualitative research study (focus groups).
Turconi G, Guarcello M, Maccarini L, Cignoli F, Setti S, Bazzano R, Roggi C. Eating habits and behaviors, physical activity, nutritional and food safety knowledge and beliefs in an adolescent Italian population. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Feb; 27(1): 31-43. PMID: 18460479. International study.
Unusan N. Consumer food safety knowledge and practices in the home in Turkey. Food Control. 2007 1; 18(1): 45-51 (hand search).  International study.
Verbeke W, Sioen I, Pieniak Z, Van Camp J, De Henauw S. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption. Public Health Nutr. 2005 Jun; 8(4): 422-429. PMID: 15975189. Does not answer the question (on fish consumption and benefits and risks).
Wang F, Zhang J, Mu W, Fu Z, Zhang X. Consumers’ perception toward quality and safety of fishery products, Beijing, China. Food Control. In Press, Corrected Proof (hand search). Does not answer the question (on fish and food safety).
Wrieden WL, Anderson AS, Longbottom PJ, Valentine K, Stead M, Caraher M, Lang T, Gray B, Dowler E. The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices: An exploratory trial. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Feb; 10(2): 203-211. PMID: 17261231. Does not answer the question (not specifically examining food safety behaviors and practices).