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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

What is the relationship between screen time and body weight? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched

12/9/2009

Inclusion Criteria

  • January 2000 to present
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analysis,  randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled studies, large non-randomized observational studies, cohort, case-control studies
  • Human subjects
  • The sample size must equal 10 adults for each study group. For example, this would include 10 patients in the intervention group and 10 patients in the control or comparison group.
  • Less than 20%; preference for smaller dropout rates
  • English language
  • International
  • Ages: Children: Under age 18 years; adults: 19 years and older
  • Populations: Healthy and those with elevated chronic disease risk; people with history of polyps adenomatous, adenoma or adenocarcinoma.

 

Exclusion Criteria

  • Medical treatment/therapy
  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Randomized controlled trial or clinical controlled studies, large nonrandomized observational studies, cohort, case-control studies (for Screentime and children ONLY)
  • Narrative reviews, cross-sectional studies
  • Diseased subjects (already diagnosed with disease related to study purpose)
  • Hospitalized patients
  • Malnourished/third-world populations or disease incidence not relative to US population (e.g., malaria)
  • Animal studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Articles not peer reviewed (websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.).

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

("body weight"[mh] OR adiposity[mh] OR "Body Mass Index"[mh] OR "Overweight"[mh] OR "Obesity"[mh] OR "Weight Gain"[mh] OR "Waist-Hip Ratio"[Mesh]) AND ((television  AND (viewing OR watching)) OR “screen time”) 

("body weight"[mh] OR adiposity[mh] OR "Body Mass Index"[mh] OR "Overweight"[mh] OR "Obesity"[mh] OR "Weight Gain"[mh] OR "Waist-Hip Ratio"[Mesh]) AND (“computer use” OR “media time” OR “media use” “small screen” OR “video games”[mh]) 

Topic=(((television viewing) OR (screen time) OR (small screen) OR (computer use)) SAME (adiposity OR overweight OR obesity OR (body weight) OR (weight gain)))

Refined by: Subject Areas=(PSYCHOLOGY, APPLIED OR PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL OR BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES OR PHYSIOLOGY OR PSYCHOLOGY, CLINICAL OR SPORT SCIENCES OR PSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL OR SOCIAL SCIENCES, INTERDISCIPLINARY) AND Document Type=(ARTICLE)
 

Pubmed

Web of Science

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 593

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 208

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 8

Number of Review Articles Identified: 1

Total Number of Articles Identified: 9

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 199

 




List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

CHILDREN

 

Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

 

Marshall SJ, Biddle SJ, Gorely T, Cameron N, Murdey I. Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: A meta-analysis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct; 28 (10): 1, 238-1, 246. Review. PMID: 15314635.

 

ADULTS 

 

Cohort Studies

 

Erik Landhuis C, Poulton R, Welch D, Hancox RJ. Programming obesity and poor fitness: The long-term impact of childhood television. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jun; 16 (6): 1, 457-1, 459. Epub 2008 Mar 27. PMID: 18369346. 

Hancox RJ, Milne BJ, Poulton R. Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: A longitudinal birth cohort study. Lancet. 2004 Jul 17-23; 364 (9430): 257-262. PMID: 15262103.

Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9; 289 (14): 1, 785-1, 791. PMID: 12684356.

Koh-Banerjee P, Chu NF, Spiegelman D, Rosner B, Colditz G, Willett W, Rimm E. Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with nine-year gain in waist circumference among 16, 587 US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct; 78 (4): 719-727. PMID: 14522729.

Oken E, Taveras EM, Popoola FA, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Television, walking and diet: Associations with postpartum weight retention. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Apr; 32 (4): 305-311. PMID: 17383561.    

Parsons TJ, Manor O, Power C. Television viewing and obesity: A prospective study in the 1958 British birth cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec; 62 (12): 1, 355-1, 363. Epub 2007 Aug 22. PMID: 17717536.

Raynor DA, Phelan S, Hill JO, Wing RR. Television viewing and long-term weight maintenance: Results from the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Oct; 14 (10): 1, 816-1, 824. PMID: 17062812.  

Viner RM, Cole TJ. Television viewing in early childhood predicts adult body mass index. J Pediatr. 2005 Oct; 147 (4): 429-435. PMID: 16227025.


List of Excluded Articles with Reason

Article (A-G) Reason for Exclusion
Adachi-Mejia AM, Longacre MR, Gibson JJ, Beach ML, Titus-Ernstoff LT, DaltonMA. Children with a TV in their bedroom at higher risk for being overweight.Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Apr; 31 (4): 644-651. Epub 2006 Sep 12. PMID: 16969360.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Aeberli I, Kaspar M, Zimmermann MB. Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight six to 14-year-old Swiss children.Swiss Med Wkly. 2007 Jul 28; 137 (29-30): 424-430. PMID: 17705105.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Alam AA. Obesity among female school children in North West Riyadh in relation to affluent lifestyle. Saudi Med J. 2008 Aug; 29 (8): 1, 139-1, 144. PMID: 1869030.7
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Anastassea-Vlachou K, Fryssira-Kanioura H, Papathanasiou-Klontza D, Xipolita-Zachariadi A, Matsaniotis N. The effects of television viewing in Greece, and the role of the paediatrician: A familiar triangle revisited. Eur J Pediatr. 1996 Dec; 155 (12): 1, 057-1, 060. PMID: 8956945.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Anderson DR, Huston AC, Schmitt KL, Linebarger DL, Wright JC. Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: The recontact study.Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2001; 66 (1): I-VIII, 1-147. PMID: 11326591.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study is a prospective cohort study.
Anderson SE, Economos CD, Must A. Active play and screen time in US children aged four to 11 years in relation to sociodemographic and weight status characteristics: A nationally representative cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health. 2008 Oct 22; 8: 366. PMID: 18945351.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Anschutz DJ, Engels RC, Becker ES, Van Strien T. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake. Body Image. 2009 Sep; 6 (4): 270-276. Epub 2009 Aug 20. PMID: 19699160. (Adults)
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between screen time and body image and food intake.
Anschutz DJ, Engels RC, Van Strien T. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent non-advertised sweet snack food intakes in young children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May; 89 (5): 1, 328-1, 333. Epub 2009 Mar 25. PMID: 19321557.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is non-randomized controlled trial.
Aucote HM, Cooper A. Relationships between body fatness, small-screen sedentary activity and regionality among schoolchildren in Victoria, Australia. Aust J Rural Health. 2009 Jun; 17 (3): 141-146. PMID: 19469778.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Baker IR, Dennison BA, Boyer PS, Sellers KF, Russo TJ, Sherwood NA. An asset-based community initiative to reduce television viewing in New York state. Prev Med. 2007 May; 44 (5): 437-441. Epub 2007 Jan 17. PMID: 17207848.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a non-randomized trial.
Ballard M, Gray M, Reilly J, Noggle M. Correlates of video game screen time among males: Body mass, physical activity and other media use. Eat Behav. 2009 Aug; 10 (3): 161-167. Epub 2009 May 19. PMID: 19665099.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Barr-Anderson DJ, van den Berg P, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Characteristics associated with older adolescents who have a television in their bedrooms. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121 (4): 718-724. PMID: 18381536.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Bellissimo N, Pencharz PB, Thomas SG, Anderson GH. Effect of television viewing at mealtime on food intake after a glucose preload in boys.Pediatr Res. 2007 Jun; 61 (6): 745-749. PMID: 17426650.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is RCT.
Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Field AE, Gillman MW, Frazier AL, Camargo CA Jr, Colditz GA. Activity, dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of pre-adolescent and adolescent boys and girls.Pediatrics. 2000 Apr; 105 (4): E56. PMID: 10742377.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a prospective cohort study.
Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. One-year changes in activity and in inactivity among 10- to 15-year-old boys and girls: Relationship to change in body mass index. Pediatrics. 2003 Apr; 111 (4 Pt 1): 836-843. PMID: 12671121.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a prospective cohort study.
Bertrais S, Beyeme-Ondoua JP, Czernichow S, Galan P, Hercberg S, Oppert JM. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged French subjects. Obes Res. 2005 May; 13 (5): 936-944. PMID: 15919848.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Bhargava A, Jolliffe D, Howard LL. Socio-economic, behavioral and environmental factors predicted body weights and household food insecurity scores in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten. Br J Nutr. 2008 Aug; 100 (2): 438-444. Epub 2008 Feb 14. PMID: 18275621.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Blair NJ, Thompson JM, Black PN, Becroft DM, Clark PM, Han DY, Robinson E, Waldie KE, Wild CJ, Mitchell EA. Risk factors for obesity in seven-year-old European children: The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Oct; 92 (10): 866-871. Epub 2007 Sep 13. PMID: 17855436.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Bogaert N, Steinbeck KS, Baur LA, Brock K, Bermingham MA. Food, activity and family-environmental vs. biochemical predictors of weight gain in children.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct; 57 (10): 1, 242-1, 249. PMID: 14506484.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a prospective cohort study.
Bowman SA. Television-viewing characteristics of adults: Correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006 Apr; 3 (2): A38. Epub 2006 Mar 15. PMID: 16539779.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Bryant MJ, Lucove JC, Evenson KR, Marshall S. Measurement of television viewing in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Obes Rev. 2007 May; 8 (3):197-209. Review. PMID: 17444962.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study was a systematic review of methodology for assessing screen time; did not examine screen time and weight.
Burdette HL, Whitaker RC. A national study of neighborhood safety, outdoor play, television viewing and obesity in preschool children. Pediatrics. 2005 Sep; 116 (3): 657-662. PMID: 16140705.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Burke V, Beilin LJ, Durkin K, Stritzke WG, Houghton S, Cameron CA. Television, computer use, physical activity, diet and fatness in Australian adolescents. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006; 1 (4): 248-255. PMID: 1790733.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Carter OB. The weighty issue of Australian television food advertising and childhood obesity. Health Promot J Austr. 2006 Apr; 17 (1): 5-11. Review. PMID: 16619929.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a narrative review.
Carter O. Changes in obesity, sedentary behaviors and Perth children's television viewing from 1960 to 2003. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2005 Apr; 29 (2): 187-188. PMID: 15915626.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study is a letter.
Carvalhal MM, Padez MC, Moreira PA, Rosado VM. Overweight and obesity related to activities in Portuguese children, seven to nine years. Eur J Public Health. 2007 Feb; 17 (1): 42-46. Epub 2006 Jun 22. PMID: 16793838.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Cecil-Karb R, Grogan-Kaylor A. Childhood body mass index in community context: Neighborhood safety, television viewing and growth trajectories of BMI. Health Soc Work. 2009 Aug; 34 (3): 169-177. PMID: 19728476.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Chamberlain LJ, Wang Y, Robinson TN. Does children's screen time predict requests for advertised products? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Apr; 160 (4): 363-368. PMID: 16585480.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional and prospective cohort.
Chang PC, Li TC, Wu MT, Liu CS, Li CI, Chen CC, Lin WY, Yang SY, Lin CC. Association between television viewing and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a community-based population. BMC Public Health. 2008 Jun 3; 8: 193. PMID: 18519004.
Study population not from a developed country as defined by the human Development Index (2010). Did not include weight in analyses.
Chen JL, Wall D, Kennedy C, Unnithan V, Yeh CH. Predictors of increased body mass index in Chinese children.Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2007 Summer; 22 (3): 138-144. PMID: 17786089.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Chen X, Sekine M, Hamanishi S, Wang H, Gaina A, Yamagami T, Kagamimori S. Lifestyles and health-related quality of life in Japanese school children: A cross-sectional study. Prev Med. 2005 Jun; 40 (6): 668-678. PMID: 15850863.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Chin A Paw MJ, Singh AS, Brug J, van Mechelen W. Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Aug  11; 5: 41. PMID: 18694483.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a RCT.
Christakis DA, Ebel BE, Rivara FP, Zimmerman FJ. Television, video and computer game usage in children under 11 years of age. J Pediatr. 2004 Nov; 145 (5): 652-656. PMID: 15520768.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Cleland VJ, Schmidt MD, Dwyer T, Venn AJ. Television viewing and abdominal obesity in young adults: Is the association mediated by food and beverage consumption during viewing time or reduced leisure-time physical activity? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May; 87 (5): 1, 148-1, 155. PMID: 18469233.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Cooper TV, Klesges LM, Debon M, Klesges RC, Shelton ML. An assessment of obese and non obese girls' metabolic rate during television viewing, reading and resting. Eat Behav. 2006 May; 7 (2): 105-114. Epub 2005 Sep 1. PMID: 16600839.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a RCT.
Cournot M, Ruidavets JB, Marquié JC, Esquirol Y, Baracat B, Ferrières J. Environmental factors associated with body mass index in a population of Southern France. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004 Aug; 11 (4): 291-297. PMID: 15292762.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Crespo CJ, Smit E, Troiano RP, Bartlett SJ, Macera CA, Andersen RE. Television watching, energy intake and obesity in US children: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 Mar; 155 (3): 360-365. PMID: 11231802.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Danner FW. A national longitudinal study of the association between hours of TV viewing and the trajectory of BMI growth among US children. J Pediatr Psychol. 2008 Nov-Dec; 33 (10): 1, 100-1, 107. Epub 2008 Apr 4. PMID: 18390579.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Davison KK, Francis LA, Birch LL. Links between parents' and girls' television viewing behaviors: A longitudinal examination. J Pediatr. 2005 Oct; 147 (4): 436-442. PMID: 16227026.
Study subjects are under 19 years old. Study design is prospective cohort.  
Davison KK, Marshall SJ, Birch LL. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TV viewing and girls' body mass index, overweight status and percentage of body fat. J Pediatr. 2006 Jul; 149 (1): 32-37. PMID: 16860123.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional and prospective cohort.
Delmas C, Platat C, Schweitzer B, Wagner A, Oujaa M, Simon C. Association between television in bedroom and adiposity throughout adolescence. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Oct; 15 (10): 2, 495-2, 503. PMID: 17925476.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.
Delva J, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD. Health-related behaviors and overweight: A study of Latino adolescents in the United States of America. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007 Jan; 21 (1): 11-20. PMID: 17439689.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Dennison BA, Erb TA, Jenkins PL. Television viewing and television in bedroom associated with overweight risk among low-income preschool children.Pediatrics. 2002 Jun; 109 (6): 1, 028-1, 035. PMID: 12042539.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Devís-Devís J, Peiró-Velert C, Beltrán-Carrillo VJ, Tomás JM. Screen media time usage of 12 to 16-year-old Spanish school adolescents: Effects of personal and socioeconomic factors, season and type of day. J Adolesc. 2009 Apr; 32 (2): 213-231. Epub 2008 Aug 9. PMID: 18694592.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Dixon HG, Scully ML, Wakefield MA, White VM, Crawford DA. The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences.Soc Sci Med. 2007 Oct; 65 (7): 1, 311-1, 323. Epub 2007 Jun 22. PMID: 17587474.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Dollman J, Ridley K, Magarey A, Martin M, Hemphill E. Dietary intake, physical activity and TV viewing as mediators of the association of socioeconomic status with body composition: A cross-sectional analysis of Australian youth. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Jan; 31 (1): 45-52. PMID: 17173061.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Dowda M, Ainsworth BE, Addy CL, Saunders R, Riner W. Environmental influences, physical activity and weight status in eight- to 16-year-olds. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 Jun; 155 (6): 711-717. PMID: 11386963.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Dubois L, Farmer A, Girard M, Peterson K. Social factors and television use during meals and snacks is associated with higher BMI among pre-school children. Public Health Nutr. 2008 Dec; 11 (12): 1, 267-1, 279. Epub 2008 Jun 12. PMID: 18547454.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.
Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Owen N, Armstrong T, Zimmet PZ, Welborn TA, Cameron AJ, Dwyer T, Jolley D, Shaw JE; AusDiab Steering Committee. Associations of TV viewing and physical activity with the metabolic syndrome in Australian adults. Diabetologia. 2005 Nov; 48 (11): 2, 254-2, 261. Epub 2005 Oct 7. PMID: 16211373.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Economos CD, Sacheck JM, Kwan Ho Chui K, Irizarry L, Guillemont J, Collins JJ, Hyatt RR. School-based behavioral assessment tools are reliable and valid for measurement of fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity and television viewing in young children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Apr; 108 (4): 695-701. Erratum in: J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Nov; 108 (11): 1, 936.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is non-randomized controlled trial.
Eisenmann JC, Bartee RT, Smith DT, Welk GJ, Fu Q. Combined influence of physical activity and television viewing on the risk of overweight in US youth. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Apr; 32 (4): 613-618. Epub 2008 Jan 22. PMID: 18209737.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Eisenmann JC, Bartee RT, Wang MQ. Physical activity, TV viewing, and weight in US youth: 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Obes Res. 2002 May; 10 (5): 379-385. PMID: 12006637.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Ekelund U, Brage S, Froberg K, Harro M, Anderssen SA, Sardinha LB, Riddoch C, Andersen LB. TV viewing and physical activity are independently associated with metabolic risk in children: The European Youth Heart Study. PLoS Med. 2006 Dec; 3 (12): e488. PMID: 17194189.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Fairclough SJ, Boddy LM, Hackett AF, Stratton G. Associations between children's socioeconomic status, weight status and sex, with screen-based sedentary behaviors and sport participation. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009; 4 (4): 299-305. PMID: 19922045.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Fleming-Moran M, Thiagarajah K. Behavioral interventions and the role of television in the growing epidemic of adolescent obesity-data from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey. Methods Inf Med. 2005; 44 (2): 303-309. PMID: 15924197.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Forshee RA, Anderson PA, Storey ML. The role of beverage consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior and demographics on body mass index of adolescents.Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 Sep; 55 (6): 463-478.PMID: 15762311
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Fotheringham MJ, Wonnacott RL, Owen N. Computer use and physical inactivity in young adults: Public health perils and potentials of new information technologies. Ann Behav Med. 2000 Fall; 22 (4): 269-275. PMID: 11253437.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Francis LA, Lee Y, Birch LL. Parental weight status and girls' television viewing, snacking and body mass indexes. Obes Res. 2003 Jan; 11 (1): 143-151. PMID: 12529497.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.
Franko DL, Striegel-Moore RH, Thompson D, Affenito SG, Schreiber GB, Daniels SR, Crawford PB. The relationship between meal frequency and body mass index in black and white adolescent girls: More is less. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Jan; 32 (1): 23-29. Epub 2007 Jun 12. PMID: 17563764.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.
Fung TT, Hu FB, Yu J, Chu NF, Spiegelman D, Tofler GH, Willett WC, Rimm EB. Leisure-time physical activity, television watching and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Dec 15; 152 (12): 1, 171-1, 178. PMID: 11130623.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Fung TT, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Rifai N, Tofler GH, Willett WC, Hu FB. Association between dietary patterns and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jan; 73 (1): 61-67. PMID: 11124751.
Did not include screen time in analyses.
Gable S, Chang Y, Krull JL. Television watching and frequency of family meals are predictive of overweight onset and persistence in a national sample of school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jan; 107 (1): 53-61. PMID: 17197271.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Giammattei J, Blix G, Marshak HH, Wollitzer AO, Pettitt DJ. Television watching and soft drink consumption: associations with obesity in 11- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Sep; 157 (9): 882-886. PMID: 12963593.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Giles-Corti B, Macintyre S, Clarkson JP, Pikora T, Donovan RJ. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity in Perth, Australia. Am J Health Promot. 2003 Sep-Oct; 18 (1): 93-102. PMID: 13677967.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Gomez LF, Parra DC, Lobelo F, Samper B, Moreno J, Jacoby E, Lucumi DI, Matsudo S, Borda C. Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007 Sep 19; 4: 41. PMID: 1788072.6
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Popkin BM. Ethnic differences in physical activity and inactivity patterns and overweight status. Obes Res. 2002 Mar; 10 (3): 141-149. PMID: 11886936.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.
Gorin A, Raynor H, Chila-Maguire K, Wing R. Decreasing household television time: A pilot study of a combined behavioral and environmental intervention. Behavioral Interventions. 2006 Sep; 21 (4): 273-280.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is an RCT.
Graf DL, Pratt LV, Hester CN, Short KR. Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children. Pediatrics. 2009 Aug; 124 (2): 534-540. Epub 2009 Jul 13. PMID: 19596737.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a non-randomized controlled trial.
Gray A, Smith C. Fitness, dietary intake, and body mass index in urban Native American youth. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Sep; 103 (9): 1, 187-1, 191. PMID: 12963950.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Grund A, Krause H, Siewers M, Rieckert H, Müller MJ. Is TV viewing an index of physical activity and fitness in overweight and normal weight children? Public Health Nutr. 2001 Dec; 4 (6): 1, 245-1, 251. PMID: 11796088.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Gubbels JS, Kremers SP, Stafleu A, Dagnelie PC, de Vries SI, de Vries NK, Thijs C. Clustering of dietary intake and sedentary behavior in two-year-old children. J Pediatr. 2009 Aug; 155 (2): 194-198. Epub 2009 Apr 25. PMID: 19394036.
Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Articles (H-R) Reason for Exclusion
Halford JC, Gillespie J, Brown V, Pontin EE, Dovey TM. Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children. Appetite. 2004 Apr; 42(2): 221-225. PMID: 15010186.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Hancox RJ, Poulton R. Watching television is associated with childhood obesity: but is it clinically important? Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Jan; 30(1): 171-175. PMID: 16158085.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort.
Hardy LL, Dobbins TA, Denney-Wilson EA, Okely AD, Booth ML. Sedentariness, small-screen recreation, and fitness in youth. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Feb; 36(2): 120-125. PMID: 19135904.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Hardy LL, Dobbins T, Booth ML, Denney-Wilson E, Okely AD. Sedentary behaviours among Australian adolescents. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2006 Dec; 30(6): 534-540. PMID: 17209269.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Hattersley LA, Shrewsbury VA, King LA, Howlett SA, Hardy LL, Baur LA. Adolescent-parent interactions and attitudes around screen time and sugary drink consumption: a qualitative study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009 Sep 9; 6: 61. PMID: 19740410.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
He M, Harris S, Piché L, Beynon C. Understanding screen-related sedentary behavior and its contributing factors among school-aged children: a social-ecologic exploration. Am J Health Promot. 2009 May-Jun; 23(5): 299-308. PMID: 19445431.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
He M, Irwin JD, Sangster Bouck LM, Tucker P, Pollett GL. Screen-viewing behaviors among preschoolers parents' perceptions. Am J Prev Med. 2005 Aug; 29(2):120-125.  PMID: 16005808.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N. Television time and continuous metabolic risk in physically active adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Apr; 40(4): 639-645. PMID: 18317383. Study design is cross-sectional.
Hesketh K, Carlin J, Wake M, Crawford D. Predictors of body mass index change in Australian primary school children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009; 4(1): 45-53. PMID: 18608636.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Hesketh K, Wake M, Graham M, Waters E. Stability of television viewing and electronic game/computer use in a prospective cohort study of Australian children: relationship with body mass index. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007 Nov 18; 4: 60. PMID: 18021422.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort.
Hudson CE, Cherry DJ, Ratcliffe SJ, McClellan LC. Head Start children's lifestyle behaviors, parental perceptions of weight, and body mass index. J Pediatr Nurs. 2009 Aug; 24(4): 292-301. Epub 2008 Nov 1. PMID: 19632506.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Iannotti RJ, Kogan MD, Janssen I, Boyce WF. Patterns of adolescent physical activity, screen-based media use, and positive and negative health indicators in the U.S. and Canada. J Adolesc Health. 2009 May; 44(5): 493-499. Epub 2009 Jan 9. PMID: 19380098.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Jackson DM, Djafarian K, Stewart J, Speakman JR. Increased television viewing is associated with elevated body fatness but not with lower total energy expenditure in children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr; 89(4): 1, 031-1, 036. Epub 2009 Feb 25. PMID: 19244374.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Jacoby E, Goldstein J, López A, Núñez E, López T. Social class, family, and life-style factors associated with overweight and obesity among adults in Peruvian cities. Prev Med. 2003 Nov; 37(5): 396-405. PMID: 14572424. Study design is cross-sectional.
Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Thompson D, Greaves KA. BMI from 3-6 y of age is predicted by TV viewing and physical activity, not diet. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jun; 29(6): 557-564. PMID: 15889113.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort. 
Jago R, Page A, Froberg K, Sardinha LB, Klasson-Heggebø L, Andersen LB. Screen-viewing and the home TV environment: the European Youth Heart Study. Prev Med. 2008 Nov; 47(5): 525-529. Epub 2008 Aug 3. PMID: 18722400.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Jakes RW, Day NE, Khaw KT, Luben R, Oakes S, Welch A, Bingham S, Wareham NJ. Television viewing and low participation in vigorous recreation are independently associated with obesity and markers of cardiovascular disease risk: EPIC-Norfolk population-based study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep; 57(9): 1, 089-1, 096. PMID: 12947427. Study design is cross-sectional.
Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, King MA, Pickett W. Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Nov; 35(5): 360-367. PMID: 15488429.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, Vereecken C, Mulvihill C, Roberts C, Currie C, Pickett W; Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Obesity Working Group. Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obes Rev. 2005 May;6(2): 123-132. Review. PMID: 15836463.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Janz KF, Levy SM, Burns TL, Torner JC, Willing MC, Warren JJ. Fatness, physical activity, and television viewing in children during the adiposity rebound period: the Iowa Bone Development Study. Prev Med. 2002 Dec; 35(6): 563-571. PMID: 12460524.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Jenkins KR, Fultz NH. The relationship of older adults' activities and body mass index. J Aging Health. 2008 Mar; 20(2): 217-234. PMID: 18287329. Study design is cross-sectional.
Johnson KM, Nelson KM, Bradley KA. Television viewing practices and obesity among women veterans. J Gen Intern Med. 2006 Mar; 21 Suppl 3: S76-S81. PMID: 16637951. Study design is cross-sectional.
Jollie-Trottier T, Holm JE, McDonald JD. Correlates of overweight and obesity in american Indian children. J Pediatr Psychol. 2009 Apr; 34(3): 245-253. Epub 2008 May 22. PMID: 18499740.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Jordan AB, Hersey JC, McDivitt JA, Heitzler CD. Reducing children's television-viewing time: a qualitative study of parents and their children. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov; 118(5): e1, 303-1, 310. PMID: 17079531.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Jordan AB, Robinson TV. Children, television, viewing, and weight status: Summary and recommendations from an expert panel meeting. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2008; 615(10): 119-132.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is a narrative review.
Jouret B, Ahluwalia N, Cristini C, Dupuy M, Nègre-Pages L, Grandjean H, Tauber M. Factors associated with overweight in preschool-age children in southwestern France. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85(6): 1, 643-1, 649. PMID: 17556704.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Kantachuvessiri A, Sirivichayakul C, KaewKungwal J, Tungtrongchitr R, Lotrakul M. Factors associated with obesity among workers in a metropolitan waterworks authority. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005 Jul; 36(4): 1, 057-1, 065. PMID: 16295568. Study design is cross-sectional.
Kaur H, Choi WS, Mayo MS, Harris KJ. Duration of television watching is associated with increased body mass index. J Pediatr. 2003 Oct; 143(4): 506-511. PMID: 14571230.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort.
Kautiainen S, Koivusilta L, Lintonen T, Virtanen SM, Rimpelä A. Use of information and communication technology and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Aug; 29(8): 925-933. PMID: 15925961.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Kelly B, Hattersley L, King L, Flood V. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements. Health Promot Int. 2008 Dec; 23(4): 337-344. Epub 2008 Aug 28. PMID: 18755740.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Khader Y, Irshaidat O, Khasawneh M, Amarin Z, Alomari M, Batieha A. Overweight and obesity among school children in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors. Matern Child Health J. 2009 May; 13(3): 424-431. Epub 2008 May 22. PMID: 18496747.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Krassas GE, Tzotzas T, Tsametis C, Konstantinidis T. Determinants of body mass index in Greek children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 14 Suppl 5: 1, 327-1, 333; discussion 1, 365. PMID: 11964030.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Kuriyan R, Bhat S, Thomas T, Vaz M, Kurpad AV. Television viewing and sleep are associated with overweight among urban and semi-urban South Indian children. Nutr J. 2007 Sep 20; 6: 25. PMID: 17880729.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Lagiou A, Parava M. Correlates of childhood obesity in Athens, Greece. Public Health Nutr. 2008 Sep; 11(9): 940-945. Epub 2008 May 19. PMID: 18489810.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Lajunen HR, Keski-Rahkonen A, Pulkkinen L, Rose RJ, Rissanen A, Kaprio J. Are computer and cell phone use associated with body mass index and overweight? A population study among twin adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2007 Feb 26; 7: 24. PMID: 17324280.

Study subjects are under 19 years old

Study design is cross-sectional.
Lanningham-Foster L, Foster RC, McCrady SK, Jensen TB, Mitre N, Levine JA. Activity-promoting video games and increased energy expenditure. J Pediatr. 2009 Jun; 154(6): 819-823. Epub 2009 Mar 25. PMID: 19324368.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Latner JD, Rosewall JK, Simmonds MB. Childhood obesity stigma: association with television, videogame, and magazine exposure. Body Image. 2007 Jun; 4(2): 147-155. Epub 2007 May 16. PMID: 18089260.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Laurson K, Eisenmann JC, Moore S. Lack of association between television viewing, soft drinks, physical activity and body mass index in children. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Jun; 97(6): 795-800. Epub 2008 Apr 9. PMID: 18410467.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.

Laurson KR, Eisenmann JC, Welk GJ, Wickel EE, Gentile DA, Walsh DA. Combined influence of physical activity and screen time recommendations on childhood overweight. J Pediatr. 2008 Aug; 153(2): 209-214. Epub 2008 Apr 16. PMID: 18534231

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Laxmaiah A, Nagalla B, Vijayaraghavan K, Nair M. Factors affecting prevalence of overweight among 12- to 17-year-old urban adolescents in Hyderabad, India. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jun; 15(6): 1, 384-1, 390. PMID: 17557974. 

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Levin S, Martin MW, Riner WF. TV viewing habits and body mass index among South Carolina Head Start children. Ethn Dis. 2004 Summer; 14(3): 336-339. PMID: 15328934. 

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Lowry R, Wechsler H, Galuska DA, Fulton JE, Kann L. Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. J Sch Health. 2002 Dec; 72(10): 413-421. PMID: 12617028.

 

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Maffeis C, Grezzani A, Perrone L, Del Giudice EM, Saggese G, Tatò L. Could the savory taste of snacks be a further risk factor for overweight in children? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Apr; 46(4): 429-437. PMID: 18367957.

 

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.
Manios Y, Kondaki K, Kourlaba G, Grammatikaki E, Birbilis M, Ioannou E. Television viewing and food habits in toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study. Eur J Pediatr. 2009 Jul; 168(7): 801-808. Epub 2008 Oct 3. PMID: 18836742.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Manios Y, Kourlaba G, Kondaki K, Grammatikaki E, Anastasiadou A, Roma-Giannikou E. Obesity and Television Watching in Preschoolers in Greece: The GENESIS Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Nov; 17(11): 2, 047-2, 053. Epub 2009 Mar 12. PMID: 19282823.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Mark AE, Janssen I. Relationship between screen time and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. J Public Health (Oxf). 2008 Jun; 30(2): 153-160. Epub 2008 Mar 28. PMID: 18375469.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Matheson DM, Killen JD, Wang Y, Varady A, Robinson TN. Children's food consumption during television viewing. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun; 79(6): 1, 088-1, 094. PMID: 15159240.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

McArthur LH, Anguiano R, Gross KH. Are household factors putting immigrant Hispanic children at risk of becoming overweight: a community-based study in eastern North Carolina. J Community Health. 2004 Oct; 29(5): 387-404. PMID: 15471421.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

McCarthy SN, Gibney MJ, Flynn A; Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance. Overweight, obesity and physical activity levels in Irish adults: evidence from the North/South Ireland food consumption survey. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 Feb; 61(1): 3-7. PMID: 12002792. Did not answer question; did not examine relationship between screen time and weight.
McDonald CM, Baylin A, Arsenault JE, Mora-Plazas M, Villamor E. Overweight is more prevalent than stunting and is associated with socioeconomic status, maternal obesity, and a snacking dietary pattern in school children from Bogota, Colombia. J Nutr. 2009 Feb; 139(2): 370-376. Epub 2008 Dec 23. PMID: 19106320.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Mellecker RR, McManus AM. Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to seated and active gaming in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Sep; 162(9): 886-891. PMID: 18762609.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is a non-randomized controlled trial.
Mellecker RR, McManus AM, Lanningham-Foster LM, Levine JA. The feasibility of ambulatory screen time in children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009;4(2):106-111. PMID: 18720174.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Mendoza JA, Zimmerman FJ, Christakis DA. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007 Sep 25; 4:44. PMID: 17894878.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Morgenstern M, Sargent JD, Hanewinkel R. Relation between socioeconomic status and body mass index: evidence of an indirect path via television use. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009 Aug; 163(8): 731-738. PMID: 19652105.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Mota J, Ribiero J, Santos MP, Gomes H. Obesity, physical activity, computer use, and TV viewing in Portuguese adolescents. Pediatric exercise science. 2006; 18(1): 113-121.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Mota J, Ribeiro JC, Santos MP. Obese girls differences in neighbourhood perceptions, screen time and socioeconomic status according to level of physical activity. Health Educ Res. 2009 Feb; 24(1): 98-104. Epub 2008 Feb 1. PMID: 18245782.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Must A, Bandini LG, Tybor DJ, Phillips SM, Naumova EN, Dietz WH. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jul; 15(7): 1, 774-1, 781. PMID: 17636096.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort.
Ochoa MC, Moreno-Aliaga MJ, Martínez-González MA, Martínez JA, Marti A; GENOI Members. Predictor factors for childhood obesity in a Spanish case-control study. Nutrition. 2007 May; 23(5): 379-384. Epub 2007 Apr 3. PMID: 17408922.

Study subjects are under 19 years old

Study design is case-control.
Olds T, Ridley K, Dollman J. Screenieboppers and extreme screenies: the place of screen time in the time budgets of 10-13 year-old Australian children. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2006 Apr; 30(2): 137-142.PMID: 16681334.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Parsons TJ, Power C, Manor O. Physical activity, television viewing and body mass index: a cross-sectional analysis from childhood to adulthood in the 1958 British cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Oct; 29(10): 1, 212-1, 221.PMID: 15917865. Study design is cross-sectional.
Patriarca A, Di Giuseppe G, Albano L, Marinelli P, Angelillo IF. Use of television, videogames, and computer among children and adolescents in Italy. BMC Public Health. 2009 May 13;9: 139. PMID: 19439070.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Phillips SM, Bandini LG, Naumova EN, Cyr H, Colclough S, Dietz WH, Must A. Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res. 2004 Mar; 12(3): 461-472. PMID: 15044663.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort.
Pollak KI, Alexander SC, Østbye T, Lyna P, Tulsky JA, Dolor RJ, Coffman C, Namenek Brouwer RJ, Esoimeme I, Manusov JR, Bravender T. Primary care physicians' discussions of weight-related topics with overweight and obese adolescents: results from the Teen CHAT Pilot study. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Aug; 45(2): 205-207. Epub 2009 Apr 22. PMID: 19628149.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Proctor MH, Moore LL, Gao D, Cupples LA, Bradlee ML, Hood MY, Ellison RC. Television viewing and change in body fat from preschool to early adolescence: The Framingham Children's Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jul;27(7): 827-833. PMID: 12821969.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort.
Rapp K, Schick KH, Bode H, Weiland SK. Type of kindergarten and other potential determinants of overweight in pre-school children. Public Health Nutr. 2005 Sep;8(6): 642-649. PMID: 16236194.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Reilly JJ, Armstrong J, Dorosty AR, Emmett PM, Ness A, Rogers I, Steer C, Sherriff A; Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Study Team. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study. BMJ. 2005 Jun 11; 330(7504):1, 357. Epub 2005 May 20. PMID: 15908441.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is prospective cohort.
Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Matheson DM, Haskell WL, Pruitt LA, Powell TM, Owens AS, Thompson NS, Flint-Moore NM, Davis GJ, Emig KA, Brown RT, Rochon J, Green S, Varady A. Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis. 2003 Winter;13(1 Suppl 1): S65-S77. PMID: 12713212.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is non-randomized controlled trial.
Rodríguez-Martín A, Novalbos Ruiz JP, Martínez Nieto JM, Escobar Jiménez L. Life-style factors associated with overweight and obesity among Spanish adults. Nutr Hosp. 2009 Mar-Apr; 24(2): 144-151. PMID: 19593483. Study design is cross-sectional.
Roemmich JN, Epstein LH, Raja S, Yin L. The neighborhood and home environments: disparate relationships with physical activity and sedentary behaviors in youth. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb;33(1): 29-38. PMID: 17291168.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Ruangdaraganon N, Kotchabhakdi N, Udomsubpayakul U, Kunanusont C, Suriyawongpaisal P. The association between television viewing and childhood obesity: a national survey in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002 Nov;85 Suppl 4: S1, 075-S1, 080. PMID: 12549779.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.
Russ SA, Larson K, Franke TM, Halfon N. Associations between media use and health in US children. Acad Pediatr. 2009 Sep-Oct; 9(5): 300-306. Epub 2009 Jul 9. PMID: 19592321.

Study subjects are under 19 years old;

Study design is cross-sectional.      

 

Article (S-Z) Reason for Exclusion
Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Nader PR, Broyles SL, BerryCC, Taras HL. Home environmental influences on children's television watching from early to middle childhood.J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2002 Jun; 23 (3): 127-132. PMID: 12055494.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Salmon J, Bauman A, Crawford D, Timperio A, Owen N. The association between television viewing and overweight among Australian adults participating in varying levels of leisure-time physical activity.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 May; 24 (5): 600-606. PMID: 10849582. Study design is cross-sectional.
Salmon J, Campbell KJ, Crawford DA. Television viewing habits associated with obesity risk factors: A survey of Melbourne schoolchildren.Med J Aust. 2006 Jan 16; 184 (2): 64-67. PMID: 16411870.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Salmon J, Timperio A, TelfordA, Carver A, Crawford D. Association of family environment with children's television viewing and with low level of physical activity. Obes Res. 2005 Nov; 13 (11): 1, 939-1, 951. PMID: 16339126.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Samuelson G. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe. An overview of current studies in the Nordic countries.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Mar; 54 Suppl 1: S21-S28. Review. PMID: 10805034.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is narrative review.

Sanchez A, Norman GJ, Sallis JF, Calfas KJ, Cella J, Patrick K. Patterns and correlates of physical activity and nutrition behaviors in adolescents.Am J Prev Med. 2007 Feb; 32 (2): 124-130. Epub 2006 Dec 29. PMID: 17197153.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Sanchez-Villegas A, Ara I, Guillén-Grima F, Bes-Rastrollo M, Varo-Cenarruzabeitia JJ, Martínez-González MA. Physical activity, sedentary index and mental disorders in the SUN cohort study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 May; 40 (5): 827-834. PMID: 18408617. Participants diagnosed with a mental disorder.
Schneider M, Dunton GF, Cooper DM. Media use and obesity in adolescent females. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15(9): 2, 328-2, 335. PMID: 17890502.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Scully M, Dixon H, WakefieldM. Association between commercial television exposure and fast-food consumption among adults. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Jan; 12 (1): 105-110. Epub 2008 Mar 14. PMID: 18339226. Did not include weight in analyses.
Shields M, Tremblay MS. Sedentary behaviour and obesity.Health Rep. 2008 Jun; 19 (2): 19-30. PMID: 18642516 Study design is cross-sectional.
Shields M, Tremblay MS. Screen time among Canadian adults: A profile.Health Rep. 2008 Jun; 19 (2): 31-43. No abstract available. PMID: 18642517. Did not include weight in analyses.
Snoek HM, van Strien T, Janssens JM, Engels RC. The effect of television viewing on adolescents' snacking: Individual differences explained by external, restrained and emotional eating.J Adolesc Health. 2006 Sep; 39 (3): 448-451. Epub 2006 Jul 10. PMID: 16919813.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Gutin B, Hatfield-Laube JL, Humphries MC, Johnson MH, Barbeau P. General and visceral adiposity in black and white adolescents and their relation with reported physical activity and diet.Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Apr; 31 (4): 622-629. PMID: 17384663.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Steffen LM, Dai S, Fulton JE, Labarthe DR. Overweight in children and adolescents associated with TV viewing and parental weight: Project HeartBeat!Am J Prev Med. 2009 Jul; 37 (1 Suppl): S50-S55. PMID: 19524156.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Stettler N, Signer TM, Suter PM. Electronic games and environmental factors associated with childhood obesity in Switzerland.Obes Res. 2004 Jun; 12 (6): 896-903. PMID: 15229327.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Stettler N. Environmental factors in the etiology of obesity in adolescents.Ethn Dis. 2002 Winter; 12 (1): S1-41-5. Review. PMID: 11913619.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is narrative review.

Storey ML, Forshee RA, Weaver AR, Sansalone WR. Demographic and lifestyle factors associated with body mass index among children and adolescents.Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Nov; 54 (6): 491-503. PMID: 14522695.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Stroebele N, de Castro JM. Television viewing is associated with an increase in meal frequency in humans.Appetite. 2004 Feb; 42 (1): 111-113. PMID: 15036790. Did not include weight in analyses.
Subrahmanyam K, Kraut RE, Greenfield PM, Gross EF. The impact of home computer use on children's activities and development.Future Child. 2000 Fall-Winter; 10 (2): 123-144. PMID: 11255703.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is narrative review.

Sugimori H, Yoshida K, Izuno T, Miyakawa M, Suka M, Sekine M, Yamagami T, Kagamimori S. Analysis of factors that influence body mass index from ages three to six years: A study based on the Toyama cohort study.Pediatr Int. 2004 Jun; 46 (3): 302-310. PMID: 15151547.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.

Sugiyama T, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Owen N. Is television viewing time a marker of a broader pattern of sedentary behavior?Ann Behav Med. 2008 Apr; 35 (2): 245-250. Epub 2008 Mar 21. PMID: 18357498. Did not include weight in analyses.
Sugiyama T, Salmon J, Dunstan DW, Bauman AE, Owen N. Neighborhood walkability and TV viewing time among Australian adults.Am J Prev Med. 2007 Dec; 33 (6): 444-449. PMID: 18022059. Did not include weight in analyses.
Sun Y, Sekine M, Kagamimori S. Lifestyle and overweight among Japanese adolescents: The Toyama Birth Cohort Study.J Epidemiol. 2009; 19 (6): 303-310. Epub 2009 Sep 19. PMID: 19776497.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.

Swinburn B, Shelly A. Effects of TV time and other sedentary pursuits.Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Dec; 32 Suppl 7: S132-S136. Review. PMID: 19136983.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is a narrative review.

Taveras EM, Field AE, Berkey CS, Rifas-Shiman SL, Frazier AL, Colditz GA, Gillman MW. Longitudinal relationship between television viewing and leisure-time physical activity during adolescence.Pediatrics. 2007 Feb; 119 (2): e314-e319. PMID: 17272594.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.

Taveras EM, Sandora TJ, Shih MC, Ross-Degnan D, Goldmann DA, Gillman MW. The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by pre-school-age children.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14 (11): 2, 034-2, 041. PMID: 17135621.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Taylor RW, Murdoch L, Carter P, Gerrard DF, Williams SM, Taylor BJ. Longitudinal study of physical activity and inactivity in preschoolers: The FLAME study.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Jan; 41 (1): 96-102. PMID: 19092702.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.

te Velde SJ, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Thorsdottir I, Rasmussen M, Hagströmer M, Klepp KI, Brug J. Patterns in sedentary and exercise behaviors and associations with overweight in nine- to 14-year-old boys and girls: A cross-sectional study. BMCPublic Health. 2007 Jan 31; 7: 16. PMID: 17266745.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Thomson M, Spence JC, Raine K, Laing L. The association of television viewing with snacking behavior and body weight of young adults.Am J Health Promot. 2008 May-Jun; 22 (5): 329-335. PMID: 18517093. Did not include weight in analyses.
Todd MK, Reis-Bergan MJ, Sidman CL, Flohr JA, Jameson-Walker K, Spicer-Bartolau T, Wildeman K. Effect of a family-based intervention on electronic media use and body composition among boys aged eight to 11 years: A pilot study.J Child Health Care. 2008 Dec; 12 (4): 344-358. PMID: 19052191.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is an RCT.

Toschke AM, Rückinger S, Böhler E, Von Kries R. Adjusted population attributable fractions and preventable potential of risk factors for childhood obesity.Public Health Nutr. 2007 Sep; 10 (9): 902-906. Epub 2007 Mar 7. PMID: 17381911.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Toyran M, Ozmert E, Yurdakök K. Television viewing and its effect on physical health of schoolage children.Turk J Pediatr. 2002 Jul-Sep; 44 (3): 194-203. PMID: 12405429.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Trost SG, Kerr LM, Ward DS, Pate RR. Physical activity and determinants of physical activity in obese and non-obese children.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Jun; 25 (6): 822-829. PMID: 11439296.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Tsai HJ, Tsai AC, Nriagu J, Ghosh D, Gong M, Sandretto A. Associations of BMI, TV-watching time, and physical activity on respiratory symptoms and asthma in 5th grade schoolchildren in Taipei, Taiwan.J Asthma. 2007 Jun; 44 (5): 397-401. PMID: 17613637. 

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Tudor-Locke C, Ainsworth BE, Popkin BM. Patterns of physical activity and overweight among seven- to 13-year-old Russian children: A seven-year nationally representative monitoring study.Res Q Exerc Sport. 2008 Mar; 79 (1): 10-17. PMID: 18431946.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Utter J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Jeffery R, Story M. Couch potatoes or french fries: Are sedentary behaviors associated with body mass index, physical activity and dietary behaviors among adolescents?J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Oct; 103 (10): 1, 298-1, 305. PMID: 14520247.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Utter J, Scragg R, Schaaf D. Associations between television viewing and consumption of commonly advertised foods among New Zealand children and young adolescents.Public Health Nutr. 2006 Aug; 9 (5): 606-612. PMID: 16923292.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Vader AM, Walters ST, Harris TR, Hoelscher DM. Television viewing and snacking behaviors of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas.Prev Chronic Dis. 2009 Jul; 6 (3): A89. Epub 2009 Jun 15. PMID: 19527590.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Van den Bulck J, Eggermont S. Media use as a reason for meal skipping and fast eating in secondary school children.J Hum Nutr Diet. 2006 Apr; 19 (2): 91-100. PMID: 16533371.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Van den Bulck J, Van Mierlo J. Energy intake associated with television viewing in adolescents, a cross sectional study.Appetite. 2004 Oct; 43 (2): 181-184. PMID: 15458804.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

van Zutphen M, Bell AC, Kremer PJ, Swinburn BA. Association between the family environment and television viewing in Australian children.J Paediatr Child Health. 2007 Jun; 43 (6): 458-463. PMID: 17535176. 

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Vandelanotte C, Sugiyama T, Gardiner P, Owen N. Associations of leisure-time internet and computer use with overweight and obesity, physical activity and sedentary behaviors: Cross-sectional study.J Med Internet Res. 2009 Jul 27;11 (3): e28. PMID: 19666455. Study design is cross-sectional.
Vandewater EA, Huang X. Parental weight status as a moderator of the relationship between television viewing and childhood overweight.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Apr; 160 (4): 425-431. PMID: 16585489.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Vandewater EA, Shim MS, Caplovitz AG. Linking obesity and activity level with children's television and video game use.J Adolesc. 2004 Feb; 27 (1): 71-85. PMID: 15013261.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Veugelers P, Sithole F, Zhang S, Muhajarine N. Neighborhood characteristics in relation to diet, physical activity and overweight of Canadian children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008; 3 (3): 152-159. PMID: 19086297.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Vicente-Rodríguez G, Rey-López JP, Martín-Matillas M, Moreno LA, Wärnberg J, Redondo C, Tercedor P, Delgado M, Marcos A, Castillo M, Bueno M; AVENA Study Group. Television watching, videogames and excess of body fat in Spanish adolescents: The AVENA study.Nutrition. 2008 Jul-Aug; 24 (7-8): 654-662. Epub 2008 May 9. PMID: 18472399.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Violante R, delRío Navarro BE, Berber A, Ramírez Chanona N, Baeza Bacab M, Sienra Monge JJ. Obesity risk factors in the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) in Mexico City.Rev Alerg Mex. 2005 Jul-Aug; 52 (4): 141-145. PMID: 16268181.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Vioque J, Torres A, Quiles J. Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Dec; 24 (12): 1, 683-1, 688. PMID: 11126224. Study design is cross-sectional.
Wack E, Tantleff-Dunn S. Relationships between electronic game play, obesity and psychosocial functioning in young men.Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009 Apr; 12 (2): 241-244. PMID: 19006465. Study design is cross-sectional.
Wake M, Hesketh K, Waters E. Television, computer use and body mass index in Australian primary school children.J Paediatr Child Health. 2003 Mar; 39 (2): 130-134. PMID: 12603802.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Waller CE, Du S, Popkin BM. Patterns of overweight, inactivity and snacking in Chinese children. Obes Res. 2003 Aug; 11 (8): 957-961. PMID: 12917500. 

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Wang Y, Liang H, Tussing L, Braunschweig C, Caballero B, Flay B. Obesity and related risk factors among low socio-economic status minority students in Chicago.Public Health Nutr. 2007 Sep; 10 (9): 927-938. Epub 2007 Feb 19. PMID: 17381954.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Weaver JB 3rd, Mays D, Sargent Weaver S, Kannenberg W, Hopkins GL, Eroglu D, Bernhardt JM. Health-risk correlates of video-game playing among adults.Am J Prev Med. 2009 Oct; 37 (4): 299-305. PMID: 19765501. Study design is cross-sectional.
Wosje KS, Khoury PR, Claytor RP, Copeland KA, Kalkwarf HJ, Daniels SR. Adiposity and TV viewing are related to less bone accrual in young children.J Pediatr. 2009 Jan; 154 (1): 79-85.e2. Epub 2008 Aug 9. PMID: 18692201.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is prospective cohort.

Xu F, Li J, Ware RS, Owen N. Associations of television viewing time with excess body weight among urban and rural high-school students in regional mainland China.Public Health Nutr. 2008 Sep; 11 (9): 891-896. Epub 2007 Nov 16. PMID: 18005491.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.

Yore MM, Fulton JE, Nelson DE, Kohl HW 3rd. Cigarette smoking status and the association between media use and overweight and obesity.Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Oct 1; 166 (7): 795-802. Epub 2007 Jul 2. PMID: 17607016. Study design is cross-sectional.
Zabinski MF, Norman GJ, Sallis JF, Calfas KJ, Patrick K. Patterns of sedentary behavior among adolescents.Health Psychol. 2007 Jan; 26 (1): 113-120.  PMID: 17209704.

Study subjects are under 19 years old; Study design is cross-sectional.