What is the effect of saturated fat (SFA) intake on increased risk of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes, including effects on intermediate markers such as serum lipid and lipoprotein levels? (DGAC 2010)
Strong evidence indicates that dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) are positively associated with intermediate markers and end-point health outcomes for two distinct metabolic pathways: 1) increased serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 2) increased markers of insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Conversely, decreased SFA intake improves measures of both cardiovascular disease and T2D risk. The evidence shows that a five percent energy decrease in SFA, replaced by monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), decreases risk of CVD and T2D in healthy adult and improves insulin responsiveness in insulin resistant and T2D subjects.